The following is a list of techniques used for gingival augmentation coronal to the recession (root coverage):
- Free gingival autograft
- Free connective tissue autograft
- Pedicle autografts: • Laterally (horizontally) positioned flap • Coronally positioned flap; includes semilunar pedicle (Tarnow)
- Subepithelial connective tissue graft (Langer)
- Guided tissue regeneration
- Pouch and tunnel technique
Subepithelial connective tissue graft (Langer) 🔎
- Larger and multiple defects with good vestibular depth and gingival thickness to allow a split-thickness flap to be elevated.
Adjacent to the denuded root surface, the donor connective tissue is sandwiched between the split flap as shown in the figure.
Surgical Technique Steps:
Step 1. Raise a partial-thickness flap with a horizontal incision 2 mm away from the tip of the papilla and two vertical incisions 1 to 2 mm away from the gingival margin of the adjoining teeth.
Step 2. Thoroughly plane the root, reducing its convexity.
Step 3. Obtain a connective tissue graft from the palate by means of a horizontal incision 5 to 6 mm from the gingival margin of molar and premolars. The connective tissue is carefully removed along with all adipose and glandular tissue. The palatal wound is sutured in a primary closure.
Step 4. Place the connective tissue on the denuded root. Suture it with resorbable sutured to the periosteum.
Step 5. Cover the graft with the outer portion of the partial-thickness flap and suture it interdentally.
Step 6. Cover the area with dry foil and surgical pack.
After 7 days, the dressing and sutures are removed. The esthetics are favorable with this technique since the donor tissue is connective tissue.
Source: Carranza’s Clinical Periodontolgy, 10th Ed