1. Free gingival autograft = give by miller
  2. Free connective tissue autograft = LEVINE
  3. Laterally positioned flap = GRUPE AND WARREN
  4. Semilunar coronally positioned flap = TARNOW
  5. Subepithelial CTG = LANGER
  7. Pouch and tunnel technique = AZZI 

Laterally positioned flap

  1. TO COVER isolated areas of recession around a single tooth 
  2. Adequate vestibular depth 
  3. Variant = double papilla flap
  4. Disadv = compromised blood supply 

Coronally positioned flap 

  1. To cover 2-3 mm of recession 
  2. Done on multiple teeth 
  3. Best for maxillary anterior teeth
  4. Pt who have Thick gingival biotype = Good prognosis 

Semilunar coronally positioned flap

  1. Used to cover recession of 1 mm 
  2. Slight recessions in anterior regions 

Subepithelial CTG 

  1. Large and multiple areas of recessions 
  2. NELSON graft = better blood supply = bilaminar or subpedicle CTG 


  1. Maxillary area only 
  2. 5mm recessions = more than 4.98 mm 

POUCH AND TUNNEL = It allows for CREEPING REATTACHMENT of marginal gingiva.


  1. Light amplified stimulated emission of radiation 
  2. RESTING state to emission state. Now it give energy to go back to resting state from emission = CIRCLE FLOWCHART
  3. CO2 and Nd:Yag = mc used
  4. TYPES = soft tissue and hard tissue
Soft tissue Hard tissue
gingiva, tongue, mucosaAffinity towards water and pigmentPrimary effect is heating Diode, Nd:YAG and C02 lasersDiode = 655 – 980Nd;yag = 1064CO2 = 10600enamel and boneAffinity for water and hydroxyapatite’Erbium lasers with wavelength 2780, 2790, 2740
  1. Donot requires LA because laser seals terminal nerve endings 
  2. Less bleeding = because coagulation of blood vessels 
  3. Healing by laser is by secondary intention = scar formation as we dont close wound and no sutures needed 
  4. Hence, For large wounds = less aesthetic 
  5. Healing is slower but less postoperative pain 
  6. Less requirements of medications 
    1. Incisions and Excisions = 
      1. disimpaction of third molar = mucopain or benzocaine is applied on mucosa with laser. 
      2. Application of mucoseal = for biopsy 
    2. Dipigemenations 
      1. Gingiva = brownish and blackish 
      2. Melanin = epithelium or superficial layer of connective tissue
      3. Painless procedure 
      4. Heals within 2 weeks and gingiva appears pink 
      5. No bleeding
    3. Pain management
      1. Tmj pain 
      2. Trigeminal neuralgia 
      1. Special use = deep pockets not accessible with instruments and bacteria is still remaining 
      2. Methylene blue or toluidine blue = taken by bacterial cells but not by healthy cells
      3. Laser will generate free radicals = will kill the bacterial cells deep in the pocket 
    5. Low level laser therapy = Triple L 
      1. Fixed wavelength but you can increase the energy source 
      2. More power= more energy = cut faster in thicker tissue. If thin tissue = it leads to charring of tissue 
      3. LLL is used for healing of 
        1. recurrent aphthous stomatitis
        2. herpetic ulcers
        3. Mucositis
        4. lichen planus
        5. pemphigus lesions 
      4. LLL stimulate fibroblasts and collagen fibers = healing potential is increased 

SPLINTS 4m ***** 2m***

  1. Splinting is the process by which you join two or more than two teeth and convert them into rigid and fixed units. 
  2. Hence, this heals the periodontal tissue around the tooth
  3. Objective = Create an environment where tooth movement is restricted within physiological limits = hence improves the function and comfort of the patient 
  4. Rationale = 
    1. to control the forces on teeth and redirect forces on long axis of tooth = most damaging is torsional and horizontal forces 
    2. To establish physiological occlusion 
    3. To serve as stabilizing force
    4. To increase patient comfort when teeth are mobile
    5. To evaluate state of teeth 
    1. To prevent migration of teeth that have been repositioned 
    2. In severe periodontal cases 
    3. In surgical and nonsurgical procedure where teeth are difficult to stabilize 
    4. During orthodontic treatment when you are migrating teeth 
    5. TFO in lower anterior teeth 
    6. Grade 1 and 2 = check and evaluate the mobility status 
    1. Grade III mobility without eliminating causes such as inflammation
  7. Disadvantage 
    1. Maintenance of oral hygiene is compromised
    2. Phonetics 
    3. Tooth structure loss 
    4. Interproximal wear 
    5. Gingiva and perodontium can be damaged 
    1. Convert many mobile teeth into multirooted rigid unit 
    2. Hence, increases area of root resistance 
    3. It alters the center of rotation 
    4. Intrusive forces are tolerated better 
    1. Have as many firm teeth as possible 
    2. It must not interfere with occlusion 
    3. It must not irritate the pulp 
    4. It must not compromise oral hygiene maintenance 
    5. Interdental embrasure must not be blocked by splint 
    6. Esthetically acceptable 
    7. Must not cause trauma to periodontium 
    8. Easy to fabricate 
    1. Temporary = 6 weeks
    2. Provisional = few months -6 months
    3. Permanent 
    4. Intracoronal = Into the enamel = remove the enamel and place the splint 
    5. Extracoronal = over the enamel
    6. According to material
      1. Bonded = with stainless steel wire and composite 
      2. Braided = like sutures


  1. Its threaded titanium structure = cover screw
  2. Above it we place abutment and over it we place crown 
  3. We use implant to replace missing teeth 
  4. No PDL around the implant = directly connected to tooth
  5. Biological width around tooth = 2mm 
  6. Biological width around implant = 4 mm 
  7. Implant is made up of bio titanium and alloys like aluminum and validium 
  8. Large surface area of implant is MUST = better connection with bone aka osseointegration = given by BRANEMARK 
  9. Time required for osseointegration = less time in mandible = less than 4-6 months = this time is called Loading time 
  10. Sandblasting or acid etching the surface area = better connection 
  11. Earlier we use plane surface = less surface area than threaded surface 
  12. FACTORS 
    1. Density of bone = less density = Primary stability of implant is less and mobile 
    2. Location of bone and anatomical structures
      1. Posterior mandible = inferior alveolar nerve
      2. Posterior maxilla = maxillary sinus 
      3. Inferior mandible = mental nerve
      4. These structures needs to be avoided when placing the implant 
    1. First instrument used is PILOT drill of 2 mm  
    2. Minimum diameter of implant = 3.3 mm 
    3. Minimum Length of implant = 8 mm 
    4. Different dimensions based on available bone available by manufactures 
    5. Bone must not overheat = must increase beyond 47*c 
    6. Motor revolutions = 800 -1200 rpm must = below this RPM = heating of bone happens
    7. We also used coolant and irrigant so bone doesn’t overheat 
    8. If bone is overheated = causes necrosis and connection with bone will be impossible 
    9. Bacterial infections and debris must be absent 
  14. 0.5 mm of bone around the implant 
  15. From adjacent tooth = 1.15 mm
  16. Distance between two implants = 3 mm 
  17. 2gm of amoxicillin before 30 mins of implant placing 
  18. If implant is of 4mm size = drill site must be less than 4 mm for tight fit of implant into bone


  1. Inflammation around loaded implant when its on function and prosthesis attached to it aka crown
  2. Types =
    1. peri mucositis = soft tissues around implant is involved = reversible
    2. Peri Implantitis = hard tissues aka bone around implant is involved = irreversible 
    1. Poor oral hygiene 
    2. Uneven forces
    3. Smoking 
    4. Osteoporosis 
    5. Residual cement 
  4. Signs and symptoms 
    1. Bleeding and redness 
    2. Bone loss around implant 
    3. Probing depth = greater than 5 mm
    4. Pus formation 
    5. Crown is mobile = because abutment is loosening 
  5. If less than 5 mm probing depth, no bone loss and implant made up of titanium = the treatment is 
    1. Scaling 
    2. Antibiotics
    3. 0.2% CHX mouthrinse
    4. If bone loss is 2 mm = we will not open the flap. Same treatment as above
    5. If bone loss = 3-5 mm = crestal bone loss around implant = regenerative surgery needed


  1. direct structural and functional connection between the implants and the bone. 
  2. [ hemidesmosomes like structures, no CT insertion, no Sharpey’s fibers ] – the first cell to contact the implant is osteoblast 
  3. It’s normal to have up to 2 mm of bone resorption around the neck of the implant in the first year. 
  4. Implants only have a periosteal blood supply
  5. No innervation & no proprioception 
  6. Since implants do not have CT [ no shock absorption ] – if there is any traumatic occlusion or excessive force it will lead to bone resorption [ cervically] or the implant might mechanically fail.