Anaesthetics – local & genral

Used as

👉 Percutaneous infiltration anaesthesia ,

👉 peripheral nerve block

👉Sympathetic nerve block
👉retrobulbar block ,

👉Cadual block

👉Lumbar epidural block

Brand names.

🙏Buloc by celon
Inj – 0.25 % & in 0.5 % ( 20ml )
🙏Bupivan by Sun pharma
Inj :- 0.25% (20ml)
0.5% ( 20ml )
0.5% ( 4ml )
🙏 Marcain by AHPL
Inj:- 0.5 % ( 20ml )
Inj :- 1 % ( 2ml )

  1. Halothane
    Inhalation anesthesia

👉 used in Induction & maintenance of general anaesthesia
🙏Fluothane by AhPL
I:vap :- 100% in ( 200 , 250 , 30, 50 ml ) soln
Inhalation anaesthesia

👉 Induction & maintenance of general anaesthesia
🙏 Forane by abbott
Inhalant :- 100% in ( 100, 250 ml )

🙏Isorane by AhPL
I:sol :- 5mg/5ml in ( 100,250,30 ml )

  1. Ketamine
    & Intravenous anesthesia

,🙏Ketam by sun
Inj 10mg/ ml (10ml )
Inj 50mg / ml ( 2ml )
🙏Ketmin by Themis medicare
Inj 50mg /ml ( 10 ml )
Inj 50 mg/ ml ( 2ml )
🙏Ketsia by celon
Inj 100mg ( 2ml )
Inj 500mg ( 10ml )

I sol :- inhalation solution
Ivap :- inhalation vapour

  1. Lidocaine ( used as )
    👉 as Epidural anesthesia
    👉Pulp dilatation during phaco-emulsification cataract surgery
    👉Spinal anaesthesia
    as Intravenous
    👉Intravenous regional anaesthesia
    👉 Sympathetic nerve block
    👉 Peripheral Nerve Block
    👉 Percutaneous infiltration anaesthesia
    👉Surface anesthesia
    Mouth / throat
    👉Surface anesthesia
    as for Opthalmic region
    👉Surface anesthesia
    Rectal & topical / cutaneous
    Company names


🙏Gesican 2% gelly by AHPL ( 30ml )

🙏Lidopatch by zydus cadila
T:patch- 5%

🙏Xylocaine by AstraZeneca
T:sol:- 2% 100ml
Oint :- 5% w/w ( 20mg )
Jelly :- 2% w/w ( 30mg )

🙏Xylocard 2 % by AstraZeneca
Inj (21.3mg/ml ) 50ml soln

🙏 Xylocaine viscous by astra zeneca
T:sol :- 21.3mg/ml ( 100ml )

🙏 Xylocaine topical 4% by AstraZeneca
T:sol :- 42.7mg/ml ( 30ml )

🙏Nummet by icpa
Spy :- 15% w/w ( 100g )

Some Combinations
Lidocaine + epinephrine

🙏 Lignosafe by stedman
( Lignocaine hcl 21.3mg & adrenaline 0.0125mg/ml )
Inj in 30ml

🙏 Xylocaine with adrenaline 2% by AstraZeneca
( Lidocaine hcl 21.3mg , adrenaline 0.005mg , nacl 6mg /ml )
Inj 30ml

Some other combination
🙏 Xylocaine 5% heavy ( lignocaine hcl 53.3mg/ml , Dextrose 75mg ) inj in 2ml

& Xylocaine soln ( same dosage as above ) T:Sol 100ml by AstraZeneca

🙏 Xylocaine spray by AstraZeneca
( Lidocaine hcl 100mg , ethanol 28.29% ) 500ml
🙏Xicaine by icpa
( Lignocaine 2 percent , adrenaline 0.022mg) inj 30ml
( Lignocaine hcl 2% , adrenaline 0.009 mg ) inj 30ml
🙏Asthesia by unichem
( Lidocaine 2.5% w/w , prilocaine 2.5% )
CRM (15,30,5 )g
Crm :- cream
Tsol :- topical solution

Types Of Caries

• Clinical Classification of Caries:

1️⃣ According to Anatomical Site –

  • Pit & fissure caries
  • Smooth Surface Caries
  • Cervical
  • Root caries

2️⃣ According to rate of caries progression –

  • Acute dental caries
  • Chronic dental caries

3️⃣ According to nature of attack-

  • Primary
  • Secondary

4️⃣ Based on chronology –

  • Infancy caries
  • Adolescent caries

A. Pit & Fissure Caries:

B. Smooth surface caries:

  • On proximal surface of teeth or gingival 3rd of buccal & lingual preceded by formation of plaque.
  • Early while chalky spot – decalcification of enamel.

C. Linear Enamel Caries:

  • Atypical form
  • Found in primary dentition
  • Gross destruction of labial surface of incisor teeth

D. Root caries:

  • Soft progressive lesion that is found everywhere on root surface that has least connective tissue attachment & is exposed to oral enviornment.
  • Older age group & gingival recession

E. Acute Dentinal Caries:

  • Rapid clinical course
  • Early pulp involvement
  • Initial lesion is small, while rapid spread of process at DEJ & diffuse involvement of dentin produce large internal excavation.

F. Rampant Caries:

Sudden, rapid & almost uncontrolled destruction of teeth affecting surface that are relatively caries free.

G. Nursing bottle caries (Baby bottle syndrome)

Affect deciduous teeth due to prolonged use of nursing bottle containing milk, sugar or honey.

💬 What is 👶 bottle decay? What causes it and how to prevent it? 👇🏻

H. Chronic dental caries: (Slower progress)

I. Recurrent caries: (Presence of leaky margins)

J. Arrested caries:

  • No tendency of future progression, caries become static.
  • Brown pigmentation in the hard tissue.


Image Source:

Psychology :-

It is science dealing with human nature and behaviour.

It also includes understanding of pattern of mental process, characteristics of an individual.

(Sigmund Freud 1905)

Theory is modified by instinctive need and sexual factors

1) Oral stage :- (0-1 years)

Primary zone of pleasure is oral region and infants obtain gratification by stimulation of oral areas.

2) Anal stage :- (1-3 years)

Gratification is obtained by control of anal musculature for elimination and retension, provides him with sense of independence and autonomy.

3) Phallic stage :- (3-6 years)

Understands difference between sexes. Oedipus and electra complex develops.

4) Latency stage :- (7-12 years)

Libido submerges and child becomes unisexual. Personal identification begins and tries to socialize.

Reference :-

Writing :- notes made from mastering bds and Soben Peter books


Given by Addlestone in 1959.

TELL: The technique involves verbal explanation of procedures in phrases appropriate to the development level of the patient.

SHOW: Demonstrations for the patient of the visual, auditory, olfactory & tactile aspects of the procedure in a carefully defined, non threatening sett.

DO: And then, without deviating from the explanation & demonstration, completion of the procedure.

This technique is used with communication skills (verbal and nonverbal) & positive reinforcement.

( Positive reinforcement is the presentation of reinforces which increases the frequency of desired behavior)

Poojitha Surgi- Team dentowesome

Powerful ways to remember what you study.

Muhad Noorman P – Final year -Team Dentowesome

Most often we get frustrated by studying for days before exams, often we fail to recollect or forget while writing exams. It’s a quite natural process for a human body to forget.
However there are tricks to master our hippocampus and remember for long. Excelling in exams are only possible based on how much you remember topics.

According to Ebbinghaus curve of forgetting information is lost from brain and we’re inable to recollect it.A typical graph of the forgetting curve purports to show that humans tend to halve their memory of newly learned knowledge in a matter of days or weeks unless they consciously review the learned material.

In oder to master long term memorization, we need to practice following methods

Revision : You still remember, A for apple and mitochondria is power house of cell. Constant and frequent revison makes your hippocampus to convert short term memory to long term memory.

Spaced repetition learning technique
Review Your Notes. Within 20-24 hours   of the initial intake of information, make sure the information is written down in notes and that you have reviewed them.
Recall the Information for the First Time. Recall the Materials Again.
Study It All Over Again
Difficult topics are checked regularly while easy topics could be reviewed occasionally

Take a break method
  Study for 20 minutes take a 5 minute break repeat pattern for 3 to 4 hours. It helps to gain more focus, At the end you’ll be happy for the productive hours. Without break in intervals your brains rejects input eventually your output becomes non productive. Mastering this techinque daily, your graph of productivity hits up.

Use body movements while learning,helps to Tigger muscle memory.

Make a story to memorize long topics. Pieces of information are always connected each other when a story link is given.

Organise your study table. Neat study table and fresh environment boost your intake . Bright light, fresh air, erect spine enhance brain functioning. Feel comfortable stay away from cluttered environment

Try to understand what you learn,  things you understand and studied are memorised 9 times.

Learn opposite things .

Switch your topics frequently. Similiar memory get’s intermixed (interference theory).

Things learned at the beginning and end are most memorized. Plan your topics accordingly.

Dicatate your topics and record in dictaphone you can download in your phone. Hear audios before you sleep, going to a beach or restaurant… Brain makes short term memory to long term memory while relaxed.

Visualise your topics. You still remembers the colour of precipitate and titration from your 12th chemistry lab practicals. Visualized memory is far beyond your imaginations.

Read first from books, 2 or 3 days later watch related topics videos from Youtube or any informative apps. Audio+ video learning brushes your previous stored information

Always make use of Sticky notes of alternating colours (prefer light colours- eye rejects dark colour for long time. Use sticky notes apps In your phone screen ( numericals, years etc.could be written in it).

  Last days before your exams should be used for rough reading or revison not for studying. Brain rejects things learned in stressed or a state of anxiety .( Your neurotransmitters makes it mess. Respect them 🤣)

Credits : 1) Forgetting curve definition:Wikipedia. Image : Internet. 2) Spaced repetition technique images from Internet and website . Spaced repetition method content from Google.