An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain. They are distinct from anesthetics, which temporarily affect, and in some instances eliminate, sensation
👉 Most Patients that present with high cholesterol (hyperlipidemia) have dietary or lifestyle indiscretion.
👉 Diets rich in cholesterol or saturated fat tend to increase blood LDL (bad) cholesterol levels while carbohydrates or alcohol increases blood VLDL triglycerides.
👉 Patients with diabetes or hyperthyroidism tend to present with hyperlipidemia, in which case the former has to be controlled first to which the latter would respond slowly.
🥗 A modified fat diet should be given for 3-6 months before considering drug therapy.
🥗 Dietary management should aim to decrease the intake of red meat, dairy produce and refined sugar.
🥗 Simultaneously, it should significantly increase the intake of vegetables, fruits and pulses.
🥗 Other sources of protein such as fish should be encouraged, particularly oily fish such as mackerel, salmon or trout. (Fact: Omega 3 poly unsaturated fats really help!)
🥗 Increased physical activity should be encouraged, this will improve glucose, blood pressure and lipid profiles.
🥗 Avoidance of cigarette smoking is absolutely essential in these patients.
⭐ Reduce energy intake to achieve ideal body weight.
⭐ Increase dietary fibre intake.
⭐ Reduce saturated fat intake to provide 30% of total fat intake.
⭐ Reduce total fat intake to provide 30% of energy intake.
⭐ Moderate alcohol intake.
⭐ Increase consumption of oily fish.
⭐ Eat greater than or equal to five portions of fresh fruit or vegetables per day.
SOURCE: Davidson’s Principles and Practices of Medicine (19th edition)
Defn and classification:-
Ventricular Septal Defect
Atrial Septal Defect
Patent Ductus Arteriosus
Teratology of Fallot (imp saq)
Reference- a.k. tripathi for general medicine
Its an uncommon condition which occurs from occlusion of hepatic vein or inferior vena cava . it may be acute but usually is chronic.
Budd-Chiari Syndrome may also cause other conditions, including:
- Portal hypertension (increased pressure in the portal vein, which carries blood from the intestines to the liver).
- Esophageal varices (twisted veins in the esophagus, or “food tube”).
- Ascites (a buildup of fluid in the abdomen).
- Cirrhosis (scarring of the liver).
- Varicose veins (abnormal, swollen blood vessels) in the abdomen and/or rectum.
- Myeloproliferative diseases such as polycythemia and thrombocythemia.
- protein c or S deficiency
- oral contraceptives
- congenital venous webs
- Sickle cell disease
- Inflammatory bowel diseases
- Massive splenomegaly
- Intractable transudative ascites
- Pain in the upper abdomen
- enlarged and tender liver
- bleeding in the esophagus
- hepatic encephalopathy
- liver failure
- Doppler ultrasound – It demonstrates the obstruction of hepatic vein with reverse flow.
- CT/MRI – They show enlargement of caudate lobe.
- Liver biopsy – this confirms the diagnosis of cirrhosis.
- Drug therapy -blood-thinning drug warfarin (Coumadin®) is often prescribed to prevent future clots. When recent thromobolysis is suspected thrombolytic therapy followed by low molecular heparin therapy may be useful.
- Non surgical procedures – ascites is managed with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt(TIPS) and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty
- Surgery – If you have liver failure (the liver no longer functions adequately), a liver transplant is the usual treatment.
A thyroglossal cyst is a fibrous cyst that forms from a persistent thyroglossal duct. Thyroglossal cysts can be defined as an irregular neck mass or a lump which develops from cells and tissues left over after the formation of the thyroid gland during developmental stages