ANAESTHESIA – LOCAL AND GENERAL WITH BRAND NAMES AND COMPANY MANUFACTURER

Anaesthetics – local & genral
….
1.Bupivacaine

Used as

👉 Percutaneous infiltration anaesthesia ,

👉 peripheral nerve block

👉Sympathetic nerve block
,
👉retrobulbar block ,

👉Cadual block

👉Lumbar epidural block

Brand names.

🙏Buloc by celon
Inj – 0.25 % & in 0.5 % ( 20ml )
.
🙏Bupivan by Sun pharma
Inj :- 0.25% (20ml)
0.5% ( 20ml )
0.5% ( 4ml )
.
🙏 Marcain by AHPL
Inj:- 0.5 % ( 20ml )
Inj :- 1 % ( 2ml )
.

  1. Halothane
    Inhalation anesthesia

👉 used in Induction & maintenance of general anaesthesia
.
🙏Fluothane by AhPL
I:vap :- 100% in ( 200 , 250 , 30, 50 ml ) soln
.
3.Isoflurane
Inhalation anaesthesia

👉 Induction & maintenance of general anaesthesia
.
🙏 Forane by abbott
Inhalant :- 100% in ( 100, 250 ml )

🙏Isorane by AhPL
I:sol :- 5mg/5ml in ( 100,250,30 ml )
.

  1. Ketamine
    Intramuscular
    & Intravenous anesthesia


.
,🙏Ketam by sun
Inj 10mg/ ml (10ml )
Inj 50mg / ml ( 2ml )
.
🙏Ketmin by Themis medicare
Inj 50mg /ml ( 10 ml )
Inj 50 mg/ ml ( 2ml )
.
🙏Ketsia by celon
Inj 100mg ( 2ml )
Inj 500mg ( 10ml )

Abbreviation
I sol :- inhalation solution
Ivap :- inhalation vapour

  1. Lidocaine ( used as )
    Epidural
    👉 as Epidural anesthesia
    Injection
    👉Pulp dilatation during phaco-emulsification cataract surgery
    Intraspinal
    👉Spinal anaesthesia
    as Intravenous
    👉Intravenous regional anaesthesia
    Parenteral
    👉 Sympathetic nerve block
    👉 Peripheral Nerve Block
    👉 Percutaneous infiltration anaesthesia
    Urethral
    👉Surface anesthesia
    Mouth / throat
    👉Surface anesthesia
    as for Opthalmic region
    👉Surface anesthesia
    Rectal & topical / cutaneous
    .
    Company names


    ..

🙏Gesican 2% gelly by AHPL ( 30ml )

🙏Lidopatch by zydus cadila
T:patch- 5%

🙏Xylocaine by AstraZeneca
T:sol:- 2% 100ml
Oint :- 5% w/w ( 20mg )
Jelly :- 2% w/w ( 30mg )
..

🙏Xylocard 2 % by AstraZeneca
Inj (21.3mg/ml ) 50ml soln
.

🙏 Xylocaine viscous by astra zeneca
T:sol :- 21.3mg/ml ( 100ml )

🙏 Xylocaine topical 4% by AstraZeneca
T:sol :- 42.7mg/ml ( 30ml )

🙏Nummet by icpa
Spy :- 15% w/w ( 100g )

.
Some Combinations
Lidocaine + epinephrine

🙏 Lignosafe by stedman
( Lignocaine hcl 21.3mg & adrenaline 0.0125mg/ml )
Inj in 30ml

🙏 Xylocaine with adrenaline 2% by AstraZeneca
( Lidocaine hcl 21.3mg , adrenaline 0.005mg , nacl 6mg /ml )
Inj 30ml
.

Some other combination
🙏 Xylocaine 5% heavy ( lignocaine hcl 53.3mg/ml , Dextrose 75mg ) inj in 2ml
.

& Xylocaine soln ( same dosage as above ) T:Sol 100ml by AstraZeneca

🙏 Xylocaine spray by AstraZeneca
( Lidocaine hcl 100mg , ethanol 28.29% ) 500ml
.
🙏Xicaine by icpa
( Lignocaine 2 percent , adrenaline 0.022mg) inj 30ml
&
( Lignocaine hcl 2% , adrenaline 0.009 mg ) inj 30ml
.
🙏Asthesia by unichem
( Lidocaine 2.5% w/w , prilocaine 2.5% )
CRM (15,30,5 )g
.
Abbreviation
Crm :- cream
Tsol :- topical solution

ERUPTION SEQUENCE OF PERMANENT AND DECIDUOUS DENTITION

The term eruption is used to denote the tooth’s emergence through the gingiva but the occlusal definition is equal movement of tooth from the dental bud to occlusal contact.

▪️Eruption sequence in Primary teeth:

Upper

  • Central Incisor: 10 months (8-12 months)
  • Lateral Incisor: 11 months (9-13 months)
  • Canine: 19 months (16-22 months)
  • 1st Molar: 16 months (13-19 months)
  • 2nd Molar: 29 months (25-33 months)

Lower

  • Central Incisor: 8 months (6-10 months)
  • Lateral Incisor: 13 months (10-16 months)
  • Canine: 20 months (17-23 months)
  • 1st Molar: 16 months (14-18 months)
  • 2nd Molar: 27 months (23-30 months)

▪️Eruption sequence of Permanent teeth:

Maxillary Teeth

  • Central Incisor: 7-8 yrs
  • Lateral Incisor: 8-9 yrs
  • Canine: 11-12 yrs
  • 1st Premolar: 10-11 yrs
  • 2nd Premolar: 10-12 yrs
  • 1st Molar: 6-7 yrs
  • 2nd Molar: 12-13 yrs
  • 3rd Molar: 17-21 yrs

Mandibular Teeth

  • Central Incisor: 6-7 yrs
  • Lateral Incisor: 7-8 yrs
  • Canine: 9-10 yrs
  • 1st Premolar: 10-12 yrs
  • 2nd Premolar: 11-12 yrs
  • 1st Molar: 6-7 yrs
  • 2nd Molar: 11-13 yrs
  • 3rd Molar: 17-21 yrs

Dentowesome 2020 @dr.mehnaz

References: Textbook-Pediatric-Dentistry-Nikhil-Marwah

CLINICAL CONSIDERATION OF PULP

Image source: info.dentis

➡️ For all operative procedures, the shape of pulp chamber & its extensions into the cusps, pulpal horns is important.

➡️ In some developmental disturbances the pulpal horn projects high into the cusps & exposure of pulp can occur when it is least anticipated.

➡️ Pulpitis is the response of the traumatized pulp with trauma being the result of a bacterial infection as in dental caries or physical trauma to tooth structure.

➡️ Pulpitis in milder form could result in focal reversible pulpitis & may progress if left unchecked to acute & chronic forms of pulpitis.

➡️ Well vascularized pulpal tissue may at times in carious molar teeth of young adults & children with open apex exhibit a form of hyperplasia seen clinically in exposed pulp chamber as a protruding red mass of granulation tissue called pulp polyp or chronic hyperplastic pulpitis.

➡️ Inflammation within pulp may also sometimes result in a condition called pulp polyp, internal resorption or pink tooth.

➡️ Pulp infection can spread apically into PDL causing granuloma, abscess, cysts.

➡️ Pulp stones lying at the opening of the root canal may cause difficulty to locate the root canals.

➡️ A necrotic pulp can cause spread of disease to periodontium through an accessory canal.

➡️ Pulp capping is successful in non-infected or minimally infected accidentally exposed pulp in individuals of any age.

Source: Internet, Grossman’s Textbook of Endodontics


Dentowesome 2020 @ dr.mehnaz

CLINICAL CONSIDERATION OF ENAMEL, DENTIN AND CEMENTUM

🔹Enamel:

➡️ The periapical expressions of pathologic Amelogenesis are hypoplasia, which is manifested by pitting, furrowing or even total absence of enamel & hypocalcification in the form of opaque or chalky areas on normally contoured enamel surfaces.

➡️ It is caused by systemic, local or hereditary factors

➡️ An example of systemic type of calcification of the enamel is so called Mottled Enamel

➡️ High flouride content in water – deficiency to calcify

➡️ The discoloration of the teeth from administration of tetracyclins during childhood is very common clinical problem

🔹 Dentin:

➡️ Dentin sensitivity of pain is exlained by hydrodynamic theory, the alteration of the fluid & cellular contents ending in contact with these cells.

➡️ Erosion of peritubular dentin & smear plug removal accounts for dentin hypersensitivity caused by agents like acidic soft drinks.

➡️ The rapid penetration & spread of caries in the dentin is the result of the tubule system in the dentin

➡️ Electron microscope of carious dentin show regions of massive bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules.

➡️ Smear layer consist of cut dentin surface which occludes the tubules & reduces permeability. Also prevents adhesion of restorative materials to dentin. Therefore this layer is removed by etching.

🔹 Cementum:

➡️ Cementum is more resistant to resorption than bone. It is for this reason orthodontic tooth movement is made possible.

➡️ Cementum resorption can occur after trauma or excessive occlusal forces. After resorption has ceased the damage usually is repaired either by formation of acellular/cellular cementum or alternate formation of both.

➡️ In most cases of repair there is tendency to re-establish the former outline of the root surface. This is called anatomic repair.

➡️ It is only a thin layer of cementum is deposited on the surface of resorption, the root outline is not reconstructed & a baylike recess remains. This is termed functional repair.

➡️ Hypercementosis – secondary to periapical infammation or extensive occlusal stress. Extraction of such tooth may necessitate the removal of bone.

Source: Internet


Dentowesome 2020 @dr.mehnaz