A medical mask should not be used as it creates a false sense of security that can lead to neglecting other essential measures . Resort to other measures like – washing hands , cover your nose and mouth while sneezing , monitor your body temperature and oxygen levels .
So when should you use medical mask ( apart from medical health care workers ) :
When a person develops symptoms like cough or fever , while visiting a health care facility .
Taking care of an ill person .
If your family member is a suspected or confirmed case undergoing home care .
Washing your hands :
Washing your hands frequently is essential . Use soap and water for atleast 20 seconds for most effective results .
Sanitizing your hands :
Hand sanitizers are to be used , when hand wash was not possible . An alcohol based sanitizer with 70% alcohol content must be used for 20 seconds .
Regularly and thoroughly clean your hands with an alcohol based hand rub or wash them with soap and water , specially after coming from outside . Avoid touching your eyes , nose and mouth .
Maintain atleast 4-6 feet distance between yourself and anyone who is coughing or sneezing . Avoid handshakes .
Follow a good respiratory hygiene . This means covering your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when you cough/ sneeze . Then dispose of the used tissue immediately .
Avoid or restrict unnecessary travel , participation in public gatherings . If you have fever , cough and difficulty in breathing , seek medical attention .
Practice social distancing . Keep a distance between you and other people so that you do not come in contact with their infected droplets . Avoid crowded places . Do not organize events where people have to get together . When people are at a crowded place , they touch objects , each other and may even exhale / inhale droplets .
Condition associated with either a physiologic or a pathologic process resulting in loss of dentin , cementum or bone .
An idiopathic , slow or fast progressive resorptive process occurring in the dentin of the pulp chamber or in the root canals of the teeth .
Cause is not known , but such patients have a history of trauma .
In root : it is asymptomatic
In crown : manifested as a reddish area called pink spot . This reddish area represents the granulation tissue showing through the resorbed area of the crown .
Diagnosed during routine radiographic examination . The appearance of the pink spot occurs late in the resorptive process . The radiograph usually shows a change in the appearance of the wall in the root canal or pulp chamber , with a round or ovoid radiolucent area .
Extirpation of the pulp .
Routine endodontic treatment is indicated , but obturation of the defect requires a special effort , preferably with a plasticized gutta – percha method . In many patients , the condition is unobserved as it is painless , until the root is perforated . In such cases , mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is recommended to repair the defect . When repair has been completed , the canal with its defect is obturated with plasticized gutta – percha .
The prognosis is best before perforation of the root or crown occurs .
It is also called as split bone block technique / shell technique.
Mandibular bone blocks ( external oblique ridge ), which consists primarily of cortical bone and a low percentage of cancellous bone , are more resistant to revascularization and consequently may have poor regeneration potential . For this reason , the harvested thick bone blocks with the diamond disk according to the split bone block technique of the biologic concept of grafting procedures.
Splitting the thick blocks into two thin blocks not only increases the number of bone blocks , offering the possibility to graft more surfaces in different forms , but also improves revascularization and regeneration.
The thin blocks were stabilized at the recipient site with microscrews , and any gaps were filled with autogenous bone chips harvested from the donor site with a bone scraper .
No biomaterials or membranes are used .
This technique with pure autogenous bone , which has been used for 20 yrs , has shown a high success rate .
Paracetamol and acetaminophen are two official names of the same chemical compound derived from its chemical name : N-acetyl-para-aminophenol . It is an aniline derivative and the most extensively used over-the-counter and prescription analgesic worldwide . It has analgesic and anti-pyretic properties similar to non – steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) but contrary to them , it does not possess any antiinflammatory properties .
It acts mainly in the CNS by inhibiting cyclo oxygenase ( COX-2 ) . It acts by preventing the oxidation of inactive COX to active COX and thereby preventing prostaglandins synthesis through an active metabolite influencing cannabinoid receptors .
It is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract . The peak plasma concentrations are reached in about 2-3 hrs after rectal administration and reaches total serum concentrations of 5-20 micro g/ml . It is primarily metabolized in the liver by conjugation to gluconide and sulfate .
Paracetamol interacts with enzyme inducing substances , such as isoniazid , carbamazepine , phenytoin or barbiturates , as well as chronic alcohol excess which increases N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine production and the risk of toxicity .
Aminoglycosides : irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis by binding to receptors on the 30s subunit of bacterial ribosome. Example : amikacin , gentamicin , kanamycin
Carbacephems : inhibit synthesis of peptidoglycan causing osmotic lysis. Example : loracarbef
Cephalosporin : bind to penicillin – binding proteins (PBP) of bacteria , inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis and activate bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes. Example : cefaclor , cefadroxil , cefalexin , cefazolin , cefepine
Cephalosporins with Betalactamaseinhibitors : bind to penicillin – binding proteins (PBP) of bacteria , inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis. Example : cefoperazone + sulbactam , cefuroxime + clavulanic acid
Chloramphenicol : bind reversibly to a receptor site on the 50s subunit of bacterial ribosome . Example : chloramphenicol
Cyclic Lipopeptides : bind to bacterial membranes and cause a rapid depolarisation of membrane potential . Hence , inhibit the protein , DNA and RNA synthesis which result in bacterial cell death . Example : daptomycin
Diaminopyridines : inhibits dihydrofolic acid reductase of bacteria and blocks metabolic sequences in DNA synthesis . Example : trimethoprim
Glycopeptides : prevent further elongation and cross linking of bacterial peptidoglycan synthesis , active against gram positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. Example : oritavancin
Glycylcyclines : bind reversibly to receptors on the 30s subunit of the bacterial ribosome inhibiting protein synthesis . Example : tigecycline
Ketolides : inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by reversible binding to the 50s ribosomal subunit. Example : telithromycin
Lincosamides : inhibit protein synthesis by interfering w/ initiation complexes and translocation reactions on the bacterial 50s subunit . Example : clindamycin , lincomycin
Macrocyclic antibiotics : inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by inhibiting RNA polymerase sigma subunit. Example : fidaxomicin