PARATHYROID MEDICINE

Muhad Noorman p, Final year, Team Dentowesome

Hyperparathyroidism

Disorder of parathyroid gland characterised by excess secretion of PTH hormones resulting in clinical and biochemical hypercalcemia.

The most common cause of excess hormone production (hyperparathyroidism) is the development of a benign tumor in one of the parathyroid glands. This enlargement of one parathyroid gland is called a parathyroid adenoma which accounts for about 70 percent of all patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. The other causes comprises of parathyroid hyperplasia and PARATHYROID carcinoma (rarely).

Types

1) Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when there is a disorder of the parathyroid glands themselves.

2) Secondary hyperparathyroidism results when a condition elsewhere in the body affects the parathyroid glands, causing them to produce too much hormone

3) Teritiary hyperparathyroidism causes when long standing secondary hyperparathyroidism become autonomous gland

CLINICAL FEATURES

Commonly found in middle aged women’s.

Hyperparathyroidism may or may not cause symptoms. When symptoms do appear, they are often mild, such as
weakness,
fatigue,
depression,( psychic moans) or
body aches and pains.
In primary hyperparathyroidism, the elevated levels of PTH cause elevated levels of blood calcium (hypercalcemia). Increased calcium and phosphorus excretion in the urine may cause kidney stones.(Nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis).

Diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism relies on blood tests to measure hormone and calcium levels. Elevated Serum Calcium and phosphorus level .

Surgery is the main treatment for hyperparathyroidism. Surgical resection of adenoma and transplantation in hand muscles is most followed protocol .

Reference; Internet, SRB Textbook of surgery