Planning :-

It is defined as systemic approach to defining problem, setting priorities, developing specific objectives and goal, determining alternative strategies and methods of implementation.

Planning results in formulation of plan.

A Plan is a decision of coarse of action.

Uses of planning :-

  • To match limited resources with many problems
  • To eliminate wasteful expenditure or duplication of expenditure
  • To develop best coarse of action to accomplish a define objective.

Information needed for planning :-

A) Sociodemographic population profile :-

  • Age
  • Ethnicity
  • Population
  • Mobility

B) Existing service provision :-

  • Availability of services
  • Range of treatment available
  • Costs of care
  • Asset to service
  • Effectiveness of intervention

C) Disease level :-

  • Epidemiological data
  • Range of condition
  • Severity of disease
  • Disease condition
  • Trends in disease

D) Public concerns :-

  • Population priorities
  • View of health services
  • Demand on health services

Planning cycle :-

  1. Indentify problem
  2. Determining priorities
  3. Developing of programme goals, objectives and activities
  4. Resource identification
  5. Identifying constraints
  6. Identify alternative strategies
  7. Develop implementation strategy
  8. Implementation
  9. Monitoring
  10. Evaluation

Reference :-

Writing :- Notes made from mastering bds and Soben Peter books

Dental Manpower :-

It is defined as individual with kind of knowledge , skills and attitude needed to achieve predetermined health, targets and ultimately health status objectives.

It requires continuous monitoring and evaluation.

WHO has suggested following framework in formulating planes

  1. Analysis of existing situation
  2. Policy formulation

Current status :-

  • India consist of 298 dental institutions which produces 25,000 to 30,000 BDS graduates every year.
  • In year 2004 dentist to population ratio in India was 1:30,000
  • Due to geographic imbalance between dental colleges the ratio is disturbed in rural and urban areas.
  • In urban areas dentist population ratio is 1:10,000 and in rural areas it is 1:2.5 lakhs.
  • In 1990 registered hygienist were 3000 while registered lab technicians were 5000 in India.
  • As per registration one can make one hygienist serve to 7 dentist and 1 lab technician provide services to 4 dentist while ideal ratio is 1:1.

Reference :-

Writing :- notes made from mastering bds and Soben Peter books

Negligence :-

It is defined as lack of reasonable care and skill or willful negligence on part of doctor in treatment of patient whereby health or life of patient is endangered.

There is failure of health care professionals to meet his or her responsibility to patient, with resultant injury to patient.

Dental professionals are legally liable for their own negligence.

Types of negligence :-

  1. Nerve damage
  2. Facial damage
  3. Failure to detect and treat gum disease
  4. Failure to carry out root canal treatment instead of extraction
  5. Fractured jaw during treatment
  6. Incorrect anesthesia

Reference :-

Writing :- notes made from mastering bds and Soben Peter books

Jurisprudence :-

It is application of legal status and regulations that pertain to State Dental Practice Act

Dentist must adhere to federal, State, Civil laws in all relations with public

As an agent of dentist, assistant should be aware of different forms of jurisprudence and role of assistance play in each case

It is divided into two parts 1. Civil law 2. Criminal law

  1. Civil law :- If a civil charge is brought against a dentist, he or she become defendant.
  2. Criminal law :- If criminal charges may be filed against dentist for malious injury, income tax evasion, narcotics misuse or any other criminal reason.

Reference :-

Writing :- notes made from mastering bds and Soben Peter books

Ethics :-

It is defined as part of psychology that deals with moral conduct and judgement.

Principles of ethics :-

A) To do no harm :-  Principle is attributed to Hippocrates and is considered to be foundation of social morality

B) To do good :- It should be role of dentist and dental hygienist to benefit patients as well as not to inflict harm

C) Respect for person :- It consists of 2 fundamental ethical considerations i.e 1. Autonomy consent 2. Informed consent

  1. Autonomy consent :- It is principle that dictate that health care professionals respect patients right to make decisions concerning treatment plan
  2. Informed consent :- It is a legal as well as ethical concept and is a component of patients right to autonomy

D) Justice :- It demands each person be treated equally

E) Trustfulness :- Patient doctor relationship is on trust

F) Confidentially :- Patients have right to expect that all their care will be treated confidentially

Reference :-

Writing :- Notes made from mastering bds and Soben Peter books

Psychology :-

It is science dealing with human nature and behaviour.

It also includes understanding of pattern of mental process, characteristics of an individual.

(Sigmund Freud 1905)

Theory is modified by instinctive need and sexual factors

1) Oral stage :- (0-1 years)

Primary zone of pleasure is oral region and infants obtain gratification by stimulation of oral areas.

2) Anal stage :- (1-3 years)

Gratification is obtained by control of anal musculature for elimination and retension, provides him with sense of independence and autonomy.

3) Phallic stage :- (3-6 years)

Understands difference between sexes. Oedipus and electra complex develops.

4) Latency stage :- (7-12 years)

Libido submerges and child becomes unisexual. Personal identification begins and tries to socialize.

Reference :-

Writing :- notes made from mastering bds and Soben Peter books

Dental payments :-

It is defined as an arrangement under which a carrier and beneficiary are liable for a share of cost of dental service provided.

Mode of payments :-

A) Private fee for service :-  It is two party arrangement. In this patient takes appointment and dentist suggest appropriate treatment and inform patient about fee.

B) Post payment plans   :-  1st step to offer service through organized dental society plan. Under this patient borrows money from bank or finance company to pay to dentist fee.

C) Prepayment plans :-  It is 3rd party plan.  1) Insuarance companies.  2) Non profitable health service corporates e.g delta dental plans, blue sheild or blue cross.  3). Prepaid group practice.  4).  Capitation plans

D) Salary

E) Public programs

Reference :-

Writing :- notes made from mastering bds and Soben Peter books

Risk factor of dental Caries :-

Dental caries :- It is multifactorial microbial infectious disease characterized by demineralization of the inorganic destruction of the organic substance of the tooth.

Risk factor of dental caries are as follows :-

  1. Deep pits and fissures
  2. Lower socioeconomic status
  3. Recreational drug use
  4. Inadequate saliva flow
  5. Frequent snaking between meals
  6. Exposed roots
  7. Orthodontic appliances
  8. Any physical or mental illness or any oral application or restoration
  9. Inadequate exposure to flouride
  10. Visible heavy plaque on teeth
  11. Medium or high S. mutans and lactobacillus counts

Reference :-

Writing :- notes made from mastering bds and Soben Peter books

Pit and fissure sealants :-

They are defined as cements or a resin which is introduced into unprepared occlusal pit and fissures of caries susceptible teeth forming a mechanical and physical protective layer against action of acid producing bacteria and substrates


  • 1 st generation sealants were achieved with an ultraviolet source
  • 2nd generation sealants are auto polymerizing
  • 3rd generation sealants are photoinitiated with visible light
  • Another recent innovation is flouride containing sealants

Indications :-

  • For deep occlusal fissure
  • Lingual pit
  • Occlusal fossa

Contraindications :-

  • Open occlusal caries lesions
  • Caries exist on other surfaces of same tooth
  • A large occlusal restoration is already present

Procedure :-

  1. Polish tooth surface
  2. Isolate and dry tooth surface
  3. Etch tooth surface
  4. Rinse tooth
  5. Isolate and dry tooth
  6. Apply bonding agent and cure it
  7. Material application- sealant material is applied to the tooth
  8. Evaluate the tooth
  9. Check oçcusal

Reference :-

Writing :- Notes made from mastering bds and Soben Peter books

Purpura :-

It is purpulish discoloration of skin and mucous membrane due to sub-cutaneous and sub-mucous extravasation of blood.

Clinical features :-

  • Occurs among adults below 40 years
  • Females are more affected
  • Bleeding spots on skin or mucosal surface
  • Women may have menses or bleeding between periods
  • Bleeding into TMJ results in pain and trismus
  • Gingival bleeding

Treatment :-

  • Steroid therapy
  • Repeated blood transfusion
  • Splenectomy
  • Immunosuppresive drug therapy

Reference :-

Image :- Google
Writing :- notes made from mastering bds and Sanjay Kumar Purkait books