And lots of cholesterol! 😬

👉 Most Patients that present with high cholesterol (hyperlipidemia) have dietary or lifestyle indiscretion.

👉 Diets rich in cholesterol or saturated fat tend to increase blood LDL (bad) cholesterol levels while carbohydrates or alcohol increases blood VLDL triglycerides.

👉 Patients with diabetes or hyperthyroidism tend to present with hyperlipidemia, in which case the former has to be controlled first to which the latter would respond slowly.

Dietary Management:

🥗 A modified fat diet should be given for 3-6 months before considering drug therapy.

🥗 Dietary management should aim to decrease the intake of red meat, dairy produce and refined sugar.

🥗 Simultaneously, it should significantly increase the intake of vegetables, fruits and pulses.

🥗 Other sources of protein such as fish should be encouraged, particularly oily fish such as mackerel, salmon or trout. (Fact: Omega 3 poly unsaturated fats really help!)

🥗 Increased physical activity should be encouraged, this will improve glucose, blood pressure and lipid profiles.

🥗 Avoidance of cigarette smoking is absolutely essential in these patients.

Discrete Methods:

⭐ Reduce energy intake to achieve ideal body weight.

⭐ Increase dietary fibre intake.

⭐ Reduce saturated fat intake to provide 30% of total fat intake.

⭐ Reduce total fat intake to provide 30% of energy intake.

⭐ Moderate alcohol intake.

⭐ Increase consumption of oily fish.

⭐ Eat greater than or equal to five portions of fresh fruit or vegetables per day.

SOURCE: Davidson’s Principles and Practices of Medicine (19th edition)

Sunantha 📖

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