Biomechanics of edentulous state

What is biomechanics?

It’s the interaction between the biological environment and the mechanical device that is fixed or removable prosthesis is called as biomechanics.

• They are 2 types of forces that is horizontal and vertical.

• The forces are directed in the vertical direction to the long axis of the tooth. Forces transferred by vertical direction are during mastication, clenching and swallowing.

• The forces transferred by the vertical direction is much more than the horizontal direction.

• The forces transferred by horizontal direction are mainly by the tongue and by perioral musculature.

• The factors for edentulism are trauma, patient’s oral hygiene, ageing , attitude of the patient , diet and financial status.

• If the forces are directed obliquely then the bone remodelling takes place and bone deposition will occur.

• In natural dentition , masticatory forces will be transferred through the periodontal ligament to the bone. The arrangement fibres in periodontal ligament also plays a major role.

• The periodontal ligament acts like a cushion and distributes the masticatory forces.

• The tooth is supported by the periodonium. Hard tissues supporting are cementum and bone and soft tissues are PDL and lamina propria of gingiva covered by the epithelium.

• The load taken up by the natural dentition is 20 kg and that in complete denture wearers is 8 kg.

• The major difference between the natural dentition is the compressibility of PDL and in the complete denture patient the oral mucous membrane has less compressibility to deliver forces.

• Normal mastication – 30 sec. Act of deglutution – 18 sec.

• We swallow about 500 times in a day and masticate about 17 minutes approximately in a day.

Reference :- deepak nallaswamy

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