Thrombus

• Thrombus is a blood clot in the circulatory system. It attaches to the site at which it is formed and remains there, hindering the blood flow.

• Thrombus is most likely to occur in the people who are immobile and those with a genetic predisposition to blood clotting.

• When a thrombus forms in an artery such as heart or brain is called arterial thrombosis.

• When a thrombus occurs in a vein is called venous thrombosis and if it occurs in deep veins it’s called deep vein thrombosis(DVT).

• Section of blood clot that breaks free from the thrombus and circulates in the bloodstream it’s called as an Embolus . Embolus is a dangerous and fatal complication of thrombosis.

Causes of thrombus:-

• Use of tobacco

• High cholesterol level

• Atherosclerosis

• Obesity

•Diabetes

•Stress

• Inactive life style

Symptoms of arterial thrombosis:-

• Unstable angina

• Myocardial infarction

• Ischaemic stroke

Symptoms of venous thrombosis :-

• pain , swelling and tenderness , usually in the calf

• Aching and warmth of the skin in the affected area

• Red skin, particularly at the back of the leg below the knee

DVT can be life threatening conditions ; emboli can travel through the bloodstream before blocking arteries elsewhere in the body.

Diagnosis:-

• Duplex ultrasound:- This is the most common test for diagnosing DVT. Duplex ultrasound uses the sound waves to create the images of the blood flowing through arteries and veins.

• A D – dimer test :- This test measures the levels of a substance in the blood that results from the breakdown of blood clots. High levels of this substance may indicate the presence of DVT or another type of blood clot.

• Venography:- A dye will be injected into the affected leg. This dye makes the vein visible on X ray such as fluoroscopy. If the scan shows a slower than the usual blood flow through the vein a thrombus may be present.

• MRI and CT scans

• A VQ scan it uses radioactive substance called radiotracer to reveal, on the scan ,the flow of Air and Blood within the lungs.

Treatment :-

• Surgery may be done in the case of medical emergency.

• Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters :- They are small mesh devices that a surgeon can put in the inferior vena cava under a local anesthetic. Inferior vena cava filters traps the blood clot and prevents them from reaching the heart and lungs. An IVC filter can be permanent or may be combined with anticoagulant therapy.

• Anticoagulants reduce the risk of clot forming and which also reduces the size of the thrombus.

• Compression stockings:- The stockings help to prevent calf pain and swelling and also reduces the risk of complications.

• Excercise :-usually recommended to stimulate blood circulation.

Source:- Medicalnewstoday.com

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