ANALGESICS AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS(NSAID’s) IN DENTISTRY

đź’ŠAnalgesic is a drug that selectively relieves pain by acting in the CNS or on the peripheral pain mechanisms without significantly altering consciousness.

đź’ŠThey are divided into 2 groups:

  1. Opiod/Narcotic/Morphine like
  2. Non-opiod/Non-Narcotic/antipyretic (Aspirin like drugs)

The antipyretic analgesics & NSAID’s are more commonly employed for dental pain because tissue injury and inflammation due to abscess, caries, tooth extraction etc. is major cause of acute dental pain.

🔆 CLASSIFICATION:

Image: 1
Image: 2

🔆 ANALGESIC/NSAID’s IN DENTISTRY:

  • The antipyretic analgesics used mainly for dental pain is Paracetemol.
  • Paracetemol (Acetaminophen) is most frequently used to relieve toothache in Pregnancy. It has week anti-inflammtory effect & causes no teratogenesis in the developing fetus.
  • Pain during invasive dental procedures is alloyed by a local anesthesic before & after is treated with NSAID’s.

đź’Š NSAID’s use during Pregnancy: (The devastating effects to the infant) 👇🏻

Image: 3

🔆Use of OPIOIDS in Dental Pain:

  • Less used than analgesics
  • Mostly codeine is used for dental patients because other opioids cause dullness & short lasting pain.
  • Other alternative Opioid Analgesics used are – Tramadol, Pentazocine.

đź’ŠMORPHINE – Depressant actions‼️

đź”»Adverse effects:
  1. Sedation, mental clouding, lethargy, nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea.
  2. Respiratory depression, blurring of vision.
  3. Allergic conditions, rashes, urticaria, itching, swelling.
  4. May develop tolerance & dependance.
đź”»Contraindications:
  1. Urinary retention – infants & elderly
  2. Asthma patients
  3. Hypotensive states
  4. Hypovolaemic states

đź’ŠNSAID’s :

  1. Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory effect.
  2. Effectively relieves inflammatory tissue, injury related pain, signs of inflammation like pain, tenderness, swelling are suspected.
  3. Cellular metabolism is increased & due to increased Glucose utilization there is decrease in blood sugar.
  4. Has teratolytic & mild-antiseptic properties
  5. Irritates gastric mucosa
  6. Interferes with platelet aggregation & bleeding time prolonged.
đź”»Adverse effects:
  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, blood loss in stools.
  • Haemolysis in G6PD deficient patients.
  • Nephrotoxicity & hepatotoxicity in long term use.
  • Allergic reactions – rashes, urticaria, photosensitivity.
  • Pregnancy & Infancy – Refer Image 3
đź”»Contraindications:
  • Nursing and pregnancy
  • Serious bleeding
  • Allergy/Asthma/Angioedema
  • Impaired renal function
  • Drug (anticoagulant)

Dr. Mehnaz Memonđź–Š


References:

  1. Flowcharts: Classification of Drugs with DOC by Vikas Seth (Third Edition)
  2. KD TripathiEssentials of Medical Pharmacology 7th Edition; Internet

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