💊Analgesic is a drug that selectively relieves pain by acting in the CNS or on the peripheral pain mechanisms without significantly altering consciousness.
💊They are divided into 2 groups:
- Opiod/Narcotic/Morphine like
- Non-opiod/Non-Narcotic/antipyretic (Aspirin like drugs)
The antipyretic analgesics & NSAID’s are more commonly employed for dental pain because tissue injury and inflammation due to abscess, caries, tooth extraction etc. is major cause of acute dental pain.
🔆 ANALGESIC/NSAID’s IN DENTISTRY:
- The antipyretic analgesics used mainly for dental pain is Paracetemol.
- Paracetemol (Acetaminophen) is most frequently used to relieve toothache in Pregnancy. It has week anti-inflammtory effect & causes no teratogenesis in the developing fetus.
- Pain during invasive dental procedures is alloyed by a local anesthesic before & after is treated with NSAID’s.
💊 NSAID’s use during Pregnancy: (The devastating effects to the infant) 👇🏻
🔆Use of OPIOIDS in Dental Pain:
- Less used than analgesics
- Mostly codeine is used for dental patients because other opioids cause dullness & short lasting pain.
- Other alternative Opioid Analgesics used are – Tramadol, Pentazocine.
💊MORPHINE – Depressant actions‼️
- Sedation, mental clouding, lethargy, nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea.
- Respiratory depression, blurring of vision.
- Allergic conditions, rashes, urticaria, itching, swelling.
- May develop tolerance & dependance.
- Urinary retention – infants & elderly
- Asthma patients
- Hypotensive states
- Hypovolaemic states
- Analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory effect.
- Effectively relieves inflammatory tissue, injury related pain, signs of inflammation like pain, tenderness, swelling are suspected.
- Cellular metabolism is increased & due to increased Glucose utilization there is decrease in blood sugar.
- Has teratolytic & mild-antiseptic properties
- Irritates gastric mucosa
- Interferes with platelet aggregation & bleeding time prolonged.
- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, blood loss in stools.
- Haemolysis in G6PD deficient patients.
- Nephrotoxicity & hepatotoxicity in long term use.
- Allergic reactions – rashes, urticaria, photosensitivity.
- Pregnancy & Infancy – Refer Image 3
- Nursing and pregnancy
- Serious bleeding
- Impaired renal function
- Drug (anticoagulant)
Dr. Mehnaz Memon🖊
- Flowcharts: Classification of Drugs with DOC by Vikas Seth (Third Edition)
- KD TripathiEssentials of Medical Pharmacology 7th Edition; Internet