Advancement in technology led to its usage in various fields and it helped build new devices that were not possible 10 or 20 years ago and made most of the jobs easier.
Such advancements include application of nanotechnology in dentistry, also known as nanodentistry, allows for treatment possibilities in restorative dentistry, orthodontics and periodontics.
Within restorative dentistry, nanorobots can be used in cavity preparation, restoration, and even dentition renaturalization.
Due to their size, nanobots work at the atomic, cellular, and molecular level to perform major tasks and help dentists in managing complicated cases at the microscopic level with ease and precision.
Bottom-up Approaches :
Local Nanoanaesthesia –
A colloidal suspension containing millions of anesthetic dental nanorobots would be used to induce local anaesthesia. Deposited on the gingival tissue, the nanorobots would reach the dentin and move toward the pulp via dentin tubules guided by a nanocomputer under the control of dentist. On reaching pulp, the analgesic robots may close down all sensation in tooth. When the treatment procedure is done, the nanorobots may be ordered to re-establish all sensations and to exit from the tooth
Tooth repositioning :
All the periodontal tissues, namely the gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolar bone, may be directed by orthodontic nanorobots leading to Swift and pain-free corrective movements
Nanorobotic dentifrice (Dentifrobots):
Toothpastes or mouthwashes could contain the dentifrobots which would then survey all gingival surfaces regularly.
Dental durability and cosmetics :
Nanostructured composites can be included with sapphire 12 or diamond to reduce their brittleness which are used to enhance the toughness and appearance of teeth.
Diagnosis of oral cancer :
- Nanoscale cantilevers : elastic beams used to attach with cancer linked molecules
- Nanopores : small holes that enable DNA passage one strand at a time, this making DNA sequencing highly efficient
- Nanotubes : carbon rods that can detect affected genes and also localise their location
- Quantum dots : these glow very brightly in UV light. They attach to proteins associated with cancer cells, this localizing tumours
- A nanoshell is a tiny bead like structure with superficial metal layers which may imbibe selective wavelengths of radiations and lead to large amounts of heat production. This results in specific devastation of the tumour cells, sparing the normal cells.
Dental nanomaterials – anodentistry as top-down approach :
- Nanofillers are minute particles, igher proportions can be achieved, and result in distinctive physical, mechanical and optical properties.
- One nanocomposite system has three different types of fillers : non agglomerated discrete silica nanoparticles, barium glass and prepolymerized filler
- Advantages – increased hardness, improved flexural strength, decreased polymerization shrinkage, High polish retention
Nanosolution (nanoadhesives) :
- Nanosolutions are constituted by dispersible nanoparticles, which are then used as a component in bonding agents.
- Advantages – higher dentin and enamel bond strength, high stress absorption, longer shelf life, durable marginal seal, flouride release
Impression materials :
Traditional vinylpolysiloxanes have incorporated Nanofillers which produce a distinctive material with improved flow, enhanced hydrophilic properties and superior detail precision.
Nano-composite denture teeth :
- Porcelain teeth are highly wear resistant but are brittle, acrylic on the other hand undergo undue wear. Nanocomposite denture teeth are made of PMMA and homogenously distributed Nanofillers
- Advantages – excellent polishing ability and stain resistant, superb esthetics, enhanced wear resistance and surface hardness
These are mainly made of nanosized hydroxyapatite molecules. They will result in protective shell on tooth surface and may even repair damaged areas. Microbrite dentifrice has microhydrin which breaks down the organic food particles
Prosthetic implants :
Nanotechnology would aid in the development of surfaces with definite topography and chemical composition leading to predicable tissue integration. Tissue differentiation into definite lineage will accurately determine the nature of peri implant tissues. Eg- nanotite, nano-coatef implant
Nano sterilizing solution :
A new sterilizing solution following nanoemulsion concept has been developed by Gandly Enterprises Inc Florida. Nanosized oil droplets attack and destroy the pathogens. Eg – eco tru disinfectant
Dentition replacement therapy (major tooth repair) :
Nanotechnology may utilize genetic engineering, tissue engineering and tissue regeneration initially, followed by growing whole new teeth in vitro and their iinstallation
Nanotechnology will bring enormous changes in the field of dentistry when few challenges such as precise manufacture of nanoscale parts, financing and tactical concerns, social issues have overcome.
Source : journal of international oral health