Barrett’s Esophagus

  • Barrett’s Esophagus is a complication of GERD that is characterized by intestinal metaplasia within the esophageal squamous mucosa.
  • The greatest concern in Barrett Esophagus is that it confers an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • Morphology – Barrett Esophagus can be recognised as one or several tongues or patches of red, velvety mucosa extending upward from the gastroesophageal junction
  • This metaplastic mucosa alternates with residual smooth, pale squamous mucosa and interferes with light brown columnar mucosa distally.
  • Goblet cells, which have distinct mucous vacoules that stain pale blue by H&E and impart the shape of a wine goblet to the remaining cytoplasm, define intestinal metaplasia and are necessary for diagnosis of Barrett Esophagus.
  • Clinical features – Barrett Esophagus can only be identified through endoscopy and biopsy, which are usually prompted by GERD symptoms

Treatment – endoscopic resection, which uses an endoscope to remove damaged cells to aid in the detection of dysplasia and cancer.

Radiofrequency ablation, which uses heat to remove abnormal Esophagus tissue.

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