Muhad Noorman, Team dentowesome , Final year
Apple jelly nodules in nasal septum: It is the nodular form of the tuberculosis in nasal mucosa. It begins in the vestibule and extends to adjoining skin and mucosa.
Arnold head: In Cleidocranial dysplasia, the fontanelles may remain open until adulthood, but the sutures often close with interposition of wormian bones
Blue Sclera: Osteogenesis imperfecta , EHLER danlos syndrome, Fetal Rickets, MARFANS Syndome etc.. Asymptomatic bluish discoloration of sclera due to thinning of sclera and exposing underlying vascular choroid.
Ash-leaf spots: Hypomelanic macules in Tuberous sclerosis.
Buffalo hump: Cushing’s syndrome, the fat relocalization in nape of the neck resembling the buffalo’s hump
Bull neck: Diptheria, Cherubism
Cerebriform tongue: Pemphigus vegetans. Also known as Furrowed tongue with numerous sulci and gyri
Chipmunk facies: Thalassemia and Sickle cell anemia. The bones of the head and face become enlarged and deformed causing an abnormal appearance resulting in a typical “chipmunk/ rodent facies” appearance. This occurs because the bone marrow, the site of red blood cell production, becomes hyperactive in an attempt to produce sufficient red cells to over profound anemia.
Cobble stone appearance: Lymphangioma, Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia, Heck’s disease
Forschemmier spots : Forscheimer spots are enanthem seen as small, red spots (petechiae) on the soft palate in patients with rubella. Also found in palatal mucosa of Scarlet fever.
Fournier’s molars: congenital syphilis, Mulberry molars
Hamman’s crunch: Cervicofacial emphysema. It’s a crunching, rasping sound, synchronous with the heartbeat, heard over the precordium .
Hebra nose: Rhinoscleroma. Epistaxis, nasal deformity, and destruction of the nasal cartilage are also noted.
Iris pearl’s: Leprosy. Miliary lepromas or iris pearls near the pupillary margins, which are spherical yellowish opaque micronodules
Koplik’s spots: Measles. Koplik spots are a prodromic viral enanthem of measles manifesting two days before the measles erythmatous cutaneous rash itself. They are characterized as clustered, white lesions on the buccal mucosa ( table salt appearance) near each Stensen’s duct (on the buccal mucosa opposite the maxillary 2nd molars) and are pathognomonic for measles.
Lisch nodules: Neurofibromatosis. A Lisch nodule is a pigmented hamartomatous nodule found in iris which is an aggregate of melanocytes.
Pastia’s lines: Scarlet fever. Pastia’s sign, Pastia lines or Thompson’s sign is a clinical sign in which pink or red lines formed of confluent petechiae are found in skin creases, particularly the crease in the antecubital fossa. Caused by erythrogenic toxins staphylococcus.
References : Shafers Oral pathology. Burkets Oral Medicine