FRACTURE

FACTS ABOUT FRACTURE:

Broken Bone Fact #1: It’s no secret that smoking is bad for you, but did you realize that it can also have a negative impact on your ability to heal from broken bones?

Broken Bone Fact #2: If you aren’t sure you have a fracture, you can always try treating your injury at home with the “RICE” treatment: Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation.

Broken Bone Fact #3: Ability to move isn’t a sure indicator of a broken bone, as the only way to confidently identify a fracture is with an X-ray. Infact, broken bones are almost always movable!

Broken Bone Fact #4: Fractures happen more easily as you get older. If you are over 85, your chance of breaking a bone is four times higher than if you are between the ages of 65 and 75.

Broken Bone Fact #5: At the end of the day, it’s better to see a doctor for your concerns. If you take too long to speak to your doctor about your possible broken bone, your bone could begin healing on its own in a crooked, painful and uncomfortable fashion!

STUDY NOTES ⚕️

Fracture:

A fracture is a structural break in the normal continuity of bone. This also includes hairline fractures.

Mechanism of Injury:

Direct violence ➡️ Fracture of tibia or mandible can occur due to a fall.

Indirect violence ➡️ Fracture of clavicle due to fall on outstretched hand.

Traction injuries ➡️ Traction of the ligament attached to the medial malleolus may lead to its fracture.

Compression fracture ➡️ It may occur due to fall from a height. May also be associated with impacted fracture of the vertebral body.

Types of Bones:

🔸Tubular bone

🔸Cancellous bone

Types of Fracture:

• Closed or Simple: There is no communication between the site of Fracture and the exterior.

• Open or Compound: There is a wound leading to the site of Fracture or communication between the Fracture site and the exterior.

Classification:

I. Depending on etiology of Fractures

II. Depending upon the plane of Fracture surface

III. Special Fractures

I. Depending on the etiology of Fractures

1️⃣ Traumatic Fractures

2️⃣ Pathological Fractures:

2a) Tumours 👉 Giant cell tumours, Secondaries in bone, bone cysts.

2b) Infections 👉 Acute osteomyelitis

2c) Metabolic bone diseases 👉 Hyperparathyroidism, Osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, Multiple myeloma, etc.

3️⃣ Stress Fractures:

Commonly seen in metatarsal bones (particularly in the second metatarsal due to prolonged marching).

Hence it is also called as ‘march fracture’.

II. Depending upon the plane of Fracture surface

• Transverse

• Spiral

• Oblique

• Comminuted

• Compression

III. Special Fractures

📍 Depressed Fractures

• Results due to sharp localised blow because of which a cortical bone segment is depressed.

• That needs to be treated with elevation of bone outwards.

• This type of Fracture is commonly seen in the skull.

📍 Fracture-Dislocation

• Fracture-Dislocation gives rise to severe pain and the continues till the dislocation is reduced.

• Classic example: Anterior dislocation of shoulder with Fracture of neck of humerus.

📍 Fracture involving a joint

• These Fractures should be treated with care OTHERWISE joint stiffness and late osteoarthritis can occur.

📍 Complex Fractures

• These Fractures involve major vessels or nerves.

• Example: Fracture of humerus associated with radial nerve injury or fracture of lower femur associated with popliteal artery injury.

Healing of a Fracture:

✔️ Stage of haematoma formation

✔️ Cellular stage

✔️ Stage of callus formation

✔️ Stage of new bone formation

✔️ Stage of remodelling


~Sunantha✍️

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