Broken Bone Fact #1: It’s no secret that smoking is bad for you, but did you realize that it can also have a negative impact on your ability to heal from broken bones?

Broken Bone Fact #2: If you aren’t sure you have a fracture, you can always try treating your injury at home with the “RICE” treatment: Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation.

Broken Bone Fact #3: Ability to move isn’t a sure indicator of a broken bone, as the only way to confidently identify a fracture is with an X-ray. Infact, broken bones are almost always movable!

Broken Bone Fact #4: Fractures happen more easily as you get older. If you are over 85, your chance of breaking a bone is four times higher than if you are between the ages of 65 and 75.

Broken Bone Fact #5: At the end of the day, it’s better to see a doctor for your concerns. If you take too long to speak to your doctor about your possible broken bone, your bone could begin healing on its own in a crooked, painful and uncomfortable fashion!



A fracture is a structural break in the normal continuity of bone. This also includes hairline fractures.

Mechanism of Injury:

Direct violence ➡️ Fracture of tibia or mandible can occur due to a fall.

Indirect violence ➡️ Fracture of clavicle due to fall on outstretched hand.

Traction injuries ➡️ Traction of the ligament attached to the medial malleolus may lead to its fracture.

Compression fracture ➡️ It may occur due to fall from a height. May also be associated with impacted fracture of the vertebral body.

Types of Bones:

🔸Tubular bone

🔸Cancellous bone

Types of Fracture:

• Closed or Simple: There is no communication between the site of Fracture and the exterior.

• Open or Compound: There is a wound leading to the site of Fracture or communication between the Fracture site and the exterior.


I. Depending on etiology of Fractures

II. Depending upon the plane of Fracture surface

III. Special Fractures

I. Depending on the etiology of Fractures

1️⃣ Traumatic Fractures

2️⃣ Pathological Fractures:

2a) Tumours 👉 Giant cell tumours, Secondaries in bone, bone cysts.

2b) Infections 👉 Acute osteomyelitis

2c) Metabolic bone diseases 👉 Hyperparathyroidism, Osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, Multiple myeloma, etc.

3️⃣ Stress Fractures:

Commonly seen in metatarsal bones (particularly in the second metatarsal due to prolonged marching).

Hence it is also called as ‘march fracture’.

II. Depending upon the plane of Fracture surface

• Transverse

• Spiral

• Oblique

• Comminuted

• Compression

III. Special Fractures

📍 Depressed Fractures

• Results due to sharp localised blow because of which a cortical bone segment is depressed.

• That needs to be treated with elevation of bone outwards.

• This type of Fracture is commonly seen in the skull.

📍 Fracture-Dislocation

• Fracture-Dislocation gives rise to severe pain and the continues till the dislocation is reduced.

• Classic example: Anterior dislocation of shoulder with Fracture of neck of humerus.

📍 Fracture involving a joint

• These Fractures should be treated with care OTHERWISE joint stiffness and late osteoarthritis can occur.

📍 Complex Fractures

• These Fractures involve major vessels or nerves.

• Example: Fracture of humerus associated with radial nerve injury or fracture of lower femur associated with popliteal artery injury.

Healing of a Fracture:

✔️ Stage of haematoma formation

✔️ Cellular stage

✔️ Stage of callus formation

✔️ Stage of new bone formation

✔️ Stage of remodelling


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