ANTIBIOTIC GROUPS ( Part 2 )

Written by : Dr. Urusa I Inamdar

  1. Macrolides : inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by reversible binding to the 50s ribosomal subunit . Example : azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin
  2. Monobactams : inhibit synthesis of peptidoglycan causing osmotic lysis , resistant to beta lactamases and active against gram negative rods. Example: aztreonam
  3. Nitrofurantoin : block aerobic energy production and synthesis of proteins , DNA ,RNA and cell walls . Example : nitrofurantoin
  4. Oxacephalosporins : bind to penicillin – binding proteins (PBP) of bacteria , inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis and activate bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes. Example : flomoxef , latamoxef
  5. Oxazolidinones : cause faulty bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50s ribosomal subunit . Example : linezolid , tedizolid
  6. Penicillins : inhibit synthesis of peptidoglycan causing osmotic lysis . Example : Amoxicillin, ampicillin,dicloxacillin
  7. Penicillins with beta lactamase inhibitors : bind to penicillin binding proteins (PBP) of bacteria , inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis and activate bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes. Example : Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid
  8. Quinolones : inhibit topoisomerases that are essential for bacterial DNA replication and transcription, inhibit DNA gyrase . Example : Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin
  9. Sulfonamides : competitive inhibition of folic acid synthesis by acting as structural analogue of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) . Example : sulfabenzamide , sulfathiazole
  10. Tetracyclines : bind reversibly to receptors on the 30s subunit of the bacterial ribosome inhibiting protein synthesis. Example : minocycline , doxycycline
  11. Tyrocidins : alter cytoplasmic membrane causing cellular leakage . Example : bacitracin , tyrothricin

Reference:

  • Essentials of medical pharmacology – K D Tripathi
  • CIMS – prescribers handbook
  • Dental notes

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