ANTIBIOTIC GROUPS ( Part 1 )

Written by : Dr. Urusa I Inamdar

  1. Aminoglycosides : irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis by binding to receptors on the 30s subunit of bacterial ribosome. Example : amikacin , gentamicin , kanamycin
  2. Carbacephems : inhibit synthesis of peptidoglycan causing osmotic lysis. Example : loracarbef
  3. Cephalosporin : bind to penicillin – binding proteins (PBP) of bacteria , inhibit bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis and activate bacterial cell wall autolytic enzymes. Example : cefaclor , cefadroxil , cefalexin , cefazolin , cefepine
  4. Cephalosporins with Beta lactamase inhibitors : bind to penicillin – binding proteins (PBP) of bacteria , inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis. Example : cefoperazone + sulbactam , cefuroxime + clavulanic acid
  5. Chloramphenicol : bind reversibly to a receptor site on the 50s subunit of bacterial ribosome . Example : chloramphenicol
  6. Cyclic Lipopeptides : bind to bacterial membranes and cause a rapid depolarisation of membrane potential . Hence , inhibit the protein , DNA and RNA synthesis which result in bacterial cell death . Example : daptomycin
  7. Diaminopyridines : inhibits dihydrofolic acid reductase of bacteria and blocks metabolic sequences in DNA synthesis . Example : trimethoprim
  8. Glycopeptides : prevent further elongation and cross linking of bacterial peptidoglycan synthesis , active against gram positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococci. Example : oritavancin
  9. Glycylcyclines : bind reversibly to receptors on the 30s subunit of the bacterial ribosome inhibiting protein synthesis . Example : tigecycline
  10. Ketolides : inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by reversible binding to the 50s ribosomal subunit. Example : telithromycin
  11. Lincosamides : inhibit protein synthesis by interfering w/ initiation complexes and translocation reactions on the bacterial 50s subunit . Example : clindamycin , lincomycin
  12. Macrocyclic antibiotics : inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by inhibiting RNA polymerase sigma subunit. Example : fidaxomicin

References

  • Essentials of medical pharmacology – K D Tripathi
  • CIMS – prescribers handbook
  • Dental notes

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