9) COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
➡️ Characterized by chronic airflow obstruction, an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung to noxious particle/gases.Most common risk factor is cigarette smoking.
- symptoms tend to be progressive
- exertional dyspnea is the most common early symptom
- chronic cough and sputum production
- less commonly wheezing and chest tightness
• Possible findings include:
1) Flattening of diaphragm
2) Hypertranslucent lung fields
3) Pumonary artery shadows
4) bulla (round focal lucency over 1 cm)
- Smoking cessation
- Bronchodilators with or without inhaled corticosteroids
- Oxygen therapy may be required in severe cases
- Treatment of the underlying chest infection
- Pulmonary Rehabilitation
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10) EMPHYSEMA (Barrel shaped Chest)
Emphysema is a pathological term defined as destruction of the alveoli walls; this is one of the structural abnormalities that can be present in patients with COPD but can also be found in persons with normal lung function.
▪️Presentation: Dyspnea, fevers.
Chest Radiograph (⬆️ Vertical Dimension)
The lungs are hyperexpanded with coarse bronchovascular markings in keeping with COPD. There is increased AP diameter and increased retrosternal airspace but the diaphragms have a near normal contour.
▪️Barrel-shaped chest features:
- Increased AP diameter, wide subcostal angle
- Sternum more arched
- Spine – concave
- Ribs – less oblique
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