🔹 Classification:-

1) Condylar Hypoplasia/Aplasia –

Clinical Features

1) Unilateral involvement (most common)

  • Defective/absent external ear
  • Underdeveloped ramus
  • Facial asymmetry
  • Altered occlusion & mastication
  • Lack of downward & forward growth of the body of mandible
  • Thickening of bone- Angle of mandible
  • Shift of mandible towards the affected side.

2) Bilateral involvement:

  • Micrognathia
  • Dental crowding
  • Open bite

Severe Cases

  • Airway obstruction
  • Posterior displacement of tongue
  • Feeding and speech error


  1. Cartilage/Bone transplants – Osteotomy
  2. Tracheostomy – Airway obstruction
  3. Severe cases – Osteoplasty

2) Condylar Hyperplasia:-

➡️ Enlargement due to chronic inflammation.


Clinical Features

  1. Age – 3rd decades; Sex – Females
  2. Elongation of face
  3. Deviation of chin away from the affected side.
  4. O/M: Malocclusion


  1. Condylectomy
  2. Orthodontics
  3. Orthognathic Surgery

3) Bifid Condyle:-

➡️ A deep groove/depression around midline of condylar head due to lack of blood supply or trauma. Asymptomatic in nature.

Dr. Mehnaz Memonđź–Š

References: Shafers Textbook Of Oral Pathology 7Ed, Image Source: Google

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