- Nutritional effects – systemically
- Dietary effects – Locally
Vitamin D :-
➡️ Vit. D along with Parathyroid hormones & calcitonin play primary roles in regulating the concentration of Calcium & inorganic phosphate in plasma & ECF and in controlling mineralization of bones & teeth.
➡️ Quantitive defect in enamel tissue from metabolic injury to Ameloblasts – ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA
- Clinical Significance: Roughened surface with discrete pitting / circumferential band like irregularities which post eruptively acquire a yellow brown stain.
Carbohydrate intolerance & Dental Caries:
➡️ Intolerance occurs because of deficiency of a specific enzyme involved in metabolism of sugar.
Hereditary fructose intolerance: (Froesch,1959)
- Inborn error of fructose metabolism transmitted by an autosomal recessive gene.
- Episodes of pallor, nausea, vomitting, coma & convulsions following ingestion of fruit containing fructose/cane sugar.
- ⬇️ Dental caries.
➡️ Dietary sucrose has 2 effects on plaque:
- Frequent ingestion – S. Mutans colonization ⬆️
- Mature plaque exposed to sucrose metabolizes to organic acids – ⬇️ pH
- No. of meals + snacks as low as possible.
- Sugars – eliminated; Active chewing foods ➡️ desirable
- Fermentable Carbs.
- Flouride, Calcium, Phosphate, fats & proteins – in diet.
- Sugar substitutes – ⬇️ acid formation.
Adequacy of Diet:
- Fats, oils, sweets – use sparingly.
- Milk, yogurt, cheese group: 2-3 servings
- Vegetable group: 3-5 servings
- Fruit group: 2-4 servings
- Meat, fish, eggs, nuts: 2-3 servings
- Bread, Rice, Pasta, Cereal: 6-11 servings.
- Milk – least cariogenic
- Cheese – casein phosphatase
- Fibrous foods
- Chewing gum – Salivary stimulant
- ⬆️ salivary flow
- ⬆️ concentration of Amino acids & NH3 – Neutralize plaque acids.
- Prevents S. Mutans binding to sucrose.
➡️ Dietary and nutrition education appropriate for dental settings are an essential component of guidelines or standards of practice that determine successful management of dental caries and the patient’s quality of life accross time.
References: Practical manual guide by CM Marya, Internet